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Allergic Rhinitis

By on March 19, 2012 in Diseases, Health, Prevention with 0 Comments

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis (AR) or nasal allergy is the most common allergic disease. It is estimated that 10 to 15% of the general population suffers from it, and, yes, it is the most common nasal condition. Depending on its intensity, it may be even disabling, or may reduce the quality of life of the person significantly, although the condition itself is not dangerous.

What is Allergic Rhinitis?

AR is an inflammatory condition of the mucosa (inner membrane) and internal structures of the nose that occurs in people of any age, but has a strong tendency to be genetic (inherited).

The cause of that inflammation is a reaction “learned” of the body, the nasal mucosa contact with protein particles, usually harmless, for most – which stimulates the production of certain antibodies, antibody “IgE,” which are directly responsible for the release of pro-inflammatory factors potent chemicals (histamine, etc.). of mast cells (cells of our defense system). Once produced and released these chemical mediators in the nasal mucosa, cause all the trouble of this condition.

What are your symptoms?

Its symptoms are varied, but predominantly rhinorrhea (runny mucus) forward or behind the nose into the throat, obstruction or nasal congestion, sneezing, usually hits long, and nasal pruritus or itching. Although these are the main symptoms, very often it is accompanied by one or more of the following complaints: itchy eyes, watery eyes, intolerance to light, headache in the fronto-nasal, dry nose, minimal bleeding or frank of the nostrils, crusted mucus, itching ears, feeling of fullness in the ears, itching of the palate and/or throat, “scratchy” sore throat or cough morning.

Most often this is associated with significant discomfort of the eyes, so it is better called Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis in those cases. Also the vast majority of people who suffer, suffer for the well-defined periods of the year (seasonal), and fewer who suffer continuously (Perennial).

In most cases, it has a history of allergy in general by one or two family branches, i.e. Allergic Rhinitis is an inherited genetic or well defined. Rather, what is inherited is the willingness or ability to create allergies, one or the other. But that’s not all, it takes constant or repeated exposure to inhaled or ingested protein particles with well defined biochemical characteristics, which we call allergens, to start or “wake up” the phenomenon of allergy.

Among the most common allergens are pollens from grasses, certain trees, and weeds, house dust, the epithelium (hair) of animals, dust mites, mold spores, insect particles, or even some foods. Most sufferers are allergic to Allergic Riniti many of these allergens.

Treatment

This depends on the degree or intensity, of whether solely or seasonal perennial, and what and how many allergens are responsible. However, the treatments always include drugs that suppress the major annoyances such as antihistamines, which remove most of the discomfort and for which there is great variety, even often associated with decongestants to improve the effect, especially if predominantly nasal obstruction. Depending on the case, can also be used anti-inflammatory steroids or type of cortisone, either applied directly into the nose or by mouth.

Importantly, we do not recommend the use of cortisone injected high power and long lasting treatment of any allergy, due to the high probability of serious adverse effects in the long term.

In addition to drugs, treatment should include a specific environmental control, ie, should be avoided as far as possible contact with the allergen responsible for allergy, it is necessary if any perfectly identified by means special test.

When allergens responsible are likely to significantly reduced, or eliminated entirely, while reducing the need for frequent or continuous use of drugs, and can avoid the need for immunotherapy. This form of treatment is reserved for those with moderate or severe allergies to allergens little or no avoidable (such as pollen and house dust), and as long as the control of the discomfort is difficult, in spite of adequate treatment, or when the long-term prognosis is bad, as the set of Allergy studies performed.

How Does Immunotherapy Work?

Immunotherapy involves the application within the skin those allergens to which the individual was allergic, in the form of aqueous dilutions, through repetitive injections, with a sustained rate, dose and slowly but progressively larger, and by time ( generally 3 years). There are different schemes (in frequency or rate of increase of dose) apply, as appropriate, this will have to define the specialist. This treatment system able to induce immunological changes (production of antibodies and specialized cells) reached “lock” in the end the allergic reaction was natural that, with greater or lesser degree of effectiveness. In most cases the block is full and sustained for many years or for life, but there are cases where desensitization is incomplete or you tend to lose relatively quickly. In general the higher the intensity of allergy are lower the chances of a cure.

Speaking in percentages, when the rhinitis starts in childhood, about half of cases go into remission (“cure”) before 14 years of age, but more than half again have symptoms in adulthood , more or less severity. When rhinitis starts in adulthood, usually no longer removed (naturally).

Another important aspect to note is that Allergic Rhinitis is only one way to manifest respiratory allergies, and rarely the only manifestation is allergic to them, as is often associated with conjunctivitis, problems of Otitis Media, Sinusitis, Adenoids and Tonsils growth, or bronchial asthma. In fact, all these conditions may actually be complications from nasal allergy initially, which has not been ignored or has not been sufficiently effective treatments.

Most people with the rhinitis is relatively mild in degree and not significantly interfere with their normal activities, however, in many cases, although not as mild, tends to be minimized its importance, or it “learns” to live with the inconvenience, and importance is not given until the first serious complications occur such as ear infections and hearing problems, sinus infections, tonsillitis problems and adenoids or asthma, which require more complicated treatments (often surgical) and more expensive.

About half of those with allergic rhinitis or asthma also suffer few, or many years after the onset of nasal symptoms, so that, to some extent, be prevented the onset of asthma if it can stop the allergic process from the early years.

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