Tips for Health


Excercise Asthma and Bronchospasm

By on March 17, 2012 in Dieting, Diseases, Health, Prevention with 0 Comments

Asthma and Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

Up to 85% of asthmatics show symptoms of wheezing during or after exercise. In addition, many patients diagnosed with asthma but with allergies or family history of allergy have bronchospasm or tightness of the airways caused by exercise. Other symptoms include rapid heartbeat, cough, abdominal pain and chest tightness occuring five to ten minutes after exercise. For years, the inability to participate in athletic programs and / or recreational sports has been an obstacle for children and adult asthmatics. It was thought that asthmatics could not and should not take part in team sports and strenuous activities. Today, with proper detection and treatment, those afflicted with asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm can do almost any kind of exercise, which is beneficial to your physical health as well as emotional well-being.

Why does it happen?

The outdoor exercise in cold and low humidity (dry air) tends to worsen symptoms as it is believed that both factors increase the heat loss from the airways. Nasal obstruction worsens exercise-induced asthma as the inspired air is moistened and warmed by the nose. Environmental pollutants (sulfur dioxide and IV), high concentrations of pollens and viral infections of the respiratory tract increases the likelihood and severity of exercise-induced wheezing.

Activities That Cause Wheezing

In general, exercises or sports that may trigger episodes of bronchospasm are those that require intense physical activity at moderate periods of time and mainly in open environments (such as basketball, tennis, racquetball, racing middle course, cycling races, etc) , however, deliberate and continuous exercise, with progressive increase of physical effort (aerobic), are less likely to cause problems (swimming, hiking, “jogging” low-impact aerobics, long distance running, etc.). .

It is possible, nevertheless, achieve a “tolerance” of the bronchial system to the IEA in most sports, with techniques of “warming” appropriate and adapted to each case, supervised by an experienced trainer.


To properly diagnose this problem, the specialist is based on adequate clinical history, detailing the type of symptoms and variables of the exercise, as well as special breathing tests performed with instruments to measure air flow and lung capacity (spirometry) both at rest (without symptoms) and after undergoing various types and times of year. Sometimes asthma can be diagnosed definitively, even without apparent symptoms.


Based on the degree of reactivity to exercise should make a careful selection of type of exercise or sport that suits you, and proper planning how. Most patients with asthma or exercise-induced bronchospasm and should benefit treated with appropriate medicines before starting the exercise, to enable them to participate in any activity they choose.

Swimming is often considered the sport of choice for asthmatics and those with a tendency toward broncoesapasmo for exercise because of its many positive factors: a warm, moist, and generally available throughout the year. Apparently, also the horizontal position helps to mobilize mucus from the bottom of the lungs, and helps tone the upper body muscles.

Other activities include sports recommended for asthmatics involving the use of short bursts and not very frequent energy, such as baseball, karate, wrestling, track and field career short distance, golf, and gymnastics.

Cold weather events (such as skiing and ice hockey) or continuous non-stop activities (such as basketball, field hockey or football) are more likely to induce bronchospasm in the airways. However, many asthmatics have found that with proper training and care, can excel as runners or even as basketball players. There is a long list of asthmatics who have achieved excellence in all sports, even making records and Olympic medals.

Drugs that can be used before exercise to prevent bronchospasm include salbutamol, metaproterenol, terbutaline, cromolyn, nedocromil and theophylline. However, it is very important for all patients with exercise-induced asthma that were made ​​at rest breathing tests to rule out the possibility that chronic asthma.

Other Helpful Hints

Warm-up exercises before competitions are very important, because they can induce tolerance to bronchospasm in these types of people. However, avoid or reduce the exercise when they have viral infections, when pollen levels and air pollution are high or when temperatures are very low.

One technique that often helps to reduce clogging of the airways is pursing ( squint) lips breathing during heating and during the exercise itself. For years, we have considered the asthma patient as unable to participate in athletic programs and / or recreational sports, which has been an obstacle for children and adults with asthma. Today, with proper detection and treatment, those affected with asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm can do virtually any type of exercise, which usually results in better physical and emotional health.


Pollen Allergy (hay fever)

By on March 16, 2012 in Diseases, Health, Prevention with 0 Comments

Rain brings with it the right condition for many plants, native to the region such as weeds and wild grasses, to grow and flourish. At the beginning of the season, such plants start flowering and in about a month, release large amount of pollen particles in the air (with which they reproduce). The ‘pollen season’ extends up to three months.

Typically in our area, there are two rainy seasons, winter and of summer. This means there are two pollen seasons more or less coinciding with the spring (March to May) and autumn (September to November).

This high concentration of pollen in the air makes people with a hereditary allergic predisposition to have a greater possibility of sensitization in this time, or if you already have “alergizado” start their ordeal, with eye symptoms (conjunctivitis “spring”), nasal symptoms (rhinitis or sinusitis), or bronchial symptoms (allergic bronchitis or bronchial asthma).

Most people blame their troubles to “climate change”, however, temperature and humidity do not cause allergy by itself, but directly influence the concentration of pollens in the air at any given time.

The symptoms in affected individuals might differ, depending on their degree of allergy. In some cases it could become severe, even meriting prolonged or frequent hospitalization.

It is estimated that approximately 10 to 15% of the entire population in our country suffer from some degree of respiratory allergy, and most of these will be sensitive to pollens of weeds, grasses or trees, regardless of other “allergens.”

Unfortunately, despite the fact that this is a common problem, many people do not know that they have allergy, and is treated as if they have “cold” or respiratory infections, handled many times with antibiotics (often self-prescribed) even with poor or no results. 

So if you or your children often have eye symptoms, frequent nasal or frequent or continuous bronchial-pulmonary with every changing season (and if there is a family history of sinusitis, bronchitis, conjunctivitis or asthma), you are most likely to be suffering from  “hay fever” or pollen-induced respiratory allergies. You must discuss this possibility with your doctor or to a specialist.

Once the doctor confirms your suspicion, after a series of tests, your doctor may rely on a specialist in allergies to find the specific causes in each case,  and decide on the best treatment.

It is now possible to cure many allergic respiratory problems, if treated in an appropriate manner. Treatment need not affect the quality of your life at all


Mechanisms of Cough

By on March 16, 2012 in Diseases, Health, Prevention with 0 Comments


Coughing is a response to irritation of the nerves known as cough receptors found in the upper and lower airways. The cough receptors are particularly concentrated in the throat and the major branching points of the tracks tract. They are also found in the sinuses, ear canals, ear drums, esophagus, abdomen and wall of the heart and lungs.

Mechanisms of Cough

These cough receptors may become irritated by multiple mechanisms, including mechanical means such as pressure, by the irritation caused by chemical contaminants in the air such as ozone or sulfur dioxide IV, or by the inflammatory response causing agents allergies (called allergens) or infections like a cold or other virus. Upon stimulation of these receptors, it sends a message to the cough center in the brain, which in turn sends messages to the chest muscles, diaphragm and abdominal wall to contract. This process starts coughing. Coughing is a reflex that can also be produced or inhibited voluntarily.

The cough is the “watchdog” of the lungs, protecting them from dangerous intruders or internal enemies. Consequently, coughing serves to protect our airways keeping them open so you can breathe. It has good and bad effects: while a cough helps clear the airways of mucus, foreign matter or toxic substances may also spread infection and be uncomfortable. abnormalities or alterations in cough reflex may lead to ineffective cough. This could be caused by damage to the cough center in the brain, as certain medications can cause it or tumors that press on him. Ineffective cough may also be due to neuromuscular disease or injury caused by surgery of the abdomen or chest.
During a cough, deletes the contents of the respiratory tract by several mechanisms. The high airflow in the airways causes them to breathe out foreign material and mucus. Also, during the forced exhalation reduces the size of the airway, thereby compressing the secretions of the smaller airways and within the larger airways where the air flow can exhale foreign matter. Finally, there is a rattle or hiss that occurs during coughing causing a vibration of the airways, which literally shakes the mucus in the airways.


In most people, the cough usually begins suddenly and lasts briefly. It is commonly caused by viral infections of upper respiratory tract, and resolves on its own within 7 to 14 days. Any cough that lasts more than three or four weeks is considered chronic and should be evaluated by a doctor.

The cause of chronic cough can usually be determined by a physician who performed a thorough history and physical examination, paying particular attention to the following areas: nose, mouth, throat, ears, sinuses, neck, chest and heart. The doctor will ask specific questions on the duration and type of cough, any exposure to environmental smoke or personal history of smoking, environmental and occupational exposure, and any history of allergies, asthma, sinusitis or infections of the upper airways.

Certain information may be particularly helpful to the physician in making a specific diagnosis such as:

  • Features of cough: dry, wet, metal, such as seals, hissing, barking, nausea, choking or horn
  • Triggering events: exercise, sleep, cold air, irritants, laughing, crying
  • Appearance: seasonal, going to sleep, sleep, awakening, begins suddenly after eating, present in childhood
  • and mucus production: quantity, color and consistency.

If the doctor witnesses the coughing can also provide evidence of their cause. If the cough may not be reproduced in the office, you might want to record on tape or video cough so the doctor can hear or see.

Causes and Complications

The most common cause of cough that lasts one to two weeks is the common cold. Common causes of chronic cough are postnasal drip, asthma and sinusitis, all of which can be triggered by allergies. Other causes include gastroesophageal reflux, chronic bronchitis, drug reactions, bronchiectasis (bronchial tubes damaged and enlarged), infections, environmental irritants and psychosomatic causes (due to the conscious or unconscious). Among the less common causes include: cystic fibrosis, foreign body, tumors, pneumonia, birth defects, heart disease or immunodeficiency, among others. It is not unusual to have more than one cause for the cough. If you have a chronic cough, be sure to consult your doctor to determine the cause (s) (s).

Depending on the history and physical examination can be performed several diagnostic tests, especially for patients with chronic cough. These may include a chest radiograph, a breast x-ray or CT scan, tuberculosis tests, examinations of skin allergies, lung function tests or provocation, exercise, esophageal pH probe to measure acid reflux, blood tests, bronchoscopy, barium swallow, electrocardiogram (ECG), sweat test and / or sputum examination.

The cough can be quite uncomfortable, causing irritation of the larynx, trachea and bronchi, and insomnia. The cough involves vigorous muscular activity, which generates high pressure within the chest cavity. This high pressure can lead to complications, including muscle damage, broken ribs, temporary loss of urine, and disruption of surgical wounds. Serious complications rarely occur as a collapsed lung. It is important that your doctor accurately diagnose and treat a chronic cough to prevent these complications.


Since cough is a symptom and not a disease, successful therapy depends on the specific therapy of the underlying disorder. For example, cough due to asthma should be treated with anti-asthma. Cough due to sinusitis should be treated with antibiotics and cough due to allergic rhinitis with antihistamines or steroid nasal sprays. Cough caused by gastroesophageal reflux improve with treatment of reflux, and cough induced by drugs (eg, due to ACE inhibitors) is solved by not managing them. Cough due to birth defects may require surgery. Cough due to environmental irritants is best treated by avoiding or eliminating irritants. Sometimes, if no cause can be identified clearly, treat cough with specific drugs can serve as a diagnostic test, if the cough is resolved.

In adults, narcotic cough suppressants are an effective temporary treatment, other prescription medicines for cough can also be effective.

Dextromethorphan, a non-narcotic medication is found in many cough preparations sold without a prescription is also effective. However, suppression of cough in patients with diseases of the airways of the lung may be, however, dangerous because it leaves the airways unprotected. Antihistamines do not suppress the cough, and well-controlled studies found that glycerol expectorant guaiacolato no more effective than a placebo, or sugar water. In children, there are no established guidelines for the use of narcotics, including codeine or dextromethorphan as a cough suppressant.

Most cough preparations sold without prescription are combinations of cough suppressants, expectorants, decongestants and antihistamines. Combinations treat different symptoms, so read labels carefully . The pills without prescription with local anesthetics may help the symptoms of cough. The most important thing is to see your doctor if cough persists for more than two weeks.

Cigarette smoking causes half the cases of bladder cancer in women

By on March 12, 2012 in Diseases with 0 Comments

Cigarette smokers have an increased risk of bladder cancer than previously reported. According to a study conducted by scientists at the National Institute Cancer (NCI), which is part of the National Institutes of Health, women who smoke face similar risk as smoking men to develop cancer. The report was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association ‘s August 16, 2011, issue.

The latest study uses data from more than 450 000 participants in the Diet and Health Study from the National Institutes of Health and the Association of Retired Persons U.S.. States. They study was conducted between 1995 and  2006.

Although previous studies showed that only 20 to 30% of cancer cases in women were caused by smoking, these new data indicate that smoking is responsible for about half of cases of bladder cancer in women, similar to the proportion men was found in current and previous studies. This increase in the proportion of bladder cancer cases in women attributable to cigarette smoking may be the result of an increasing number of women who smoke, so that men and women are almost as likely to smoke, as noted in the current studyMost previous studies were carried out over periods of time or geographic regions where smoking was much less common among women. 

The researchers found that the amount of risk caused by smoking, called excess risk, was higher in this study than in studies that reported previously. “Current smokers in our study had a risk four times excess of bladder cancer, compared with over three times the risk in previous studies. The strongest association between smoking and bladder cancer is probably due to changes in the composition of cigarettes or smoking habits over the years,” said study author Dr. Neal Freedman, of the Division of Epidemiology and Genetics NCI Cancer  Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, DCEG ). “Incidence rates of bladder cancer in the U.S.. States. have remained relatively stable over the past 30 years, although smoking rates have declined overall. The greatest risk, compared with studies that were released in mid to late nineties, may explain why the rates of bladder cancer have not decreased. “

Although there have been reductions in the concentrations of tar and nicotine in cigarette smoke, has been apparent increases in the concentrations of carcinogenic factors associated with bladder cancer. A study by the NCI DCEG 2009 was the first to suggest a higher risk of bladder cancer induced by smoking than previously reported. The report, based on data from the Study of Bladder Cancer in New England, found that the association between cigarette smoking and bladder cancer risk was apparently stronger than the mid-nineties. The survey results again confirmed the 2009 report.

In the current study, former smokers were twice as likely to develop bladder cancer than people who never smoked, and current smokers were four times more likely than never smokers. As with many other cancers related to smoking, quitting smoking was associated with a lower risk of bladder cancer. Participants who had not smoked for 10 years at least had a lower incidence of bladder cancer compared with those who quit smoking for shorter time periods or with those who still smoked.

“Our findings provide further evidence of the importance of preventing it from starting to smoke and promote cessation of the habit for both men and women,” said lead author Dr. Christian Abnet also of DCEG. “Although the prevalence of cigarette smoking has declined about 20% of the U.S. adult population. States. continue to smoke. “

Although smoking causes the same risk for men and for women, men are still four times more likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer. These results and the results of earlier studies suggest that differences in smoking rates explain only part of the higher incidence rates among American men. The researchers suggest that occupational exposure and physiological differences, may contribute to gender inequality.

In 2011, approximately 69,250 people will be diagnosed with bladder cancer in the U.S.. States., And 14,990 die from the disease.


Screening for Colorectal Cancer

By on March 11, 2012 in Diseases, Health, Prevention with 0 Comments

Key Points

  • Colorectal cancer is a disease in which cells of the colon or rectum become abnormal, divide without control and form a mass, called a tumor.
  • No one knows the exact causes of colorectal cancer. However, studies show that certain factors increase the chances that a person will develop colorectal cancer.
  • Health care providers may suggest one or more tests as screening for colorectal cancer. Analysis of fecal occult blood test (FOBT), sigmoidoscopy, regular colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, barium enema double contrast or digital rectal exam, they are all tests of this type .
  • People should talk with healthcare provider about when to begin having screening for colorectal cancer, what type of tests performed and the benefits and risks of each, and the frequency with which they must make appointments.
  • Are being studied new methods of screening for colorectal cancer, and genetic analyzes of stool samples.

What is colorectal cancer?

Colorectal cancer is a disease in which cells of the colon or rectum become abnormal and divide without control, creating a mass that is what is called tumor. (The colon and rectum are parts of the digestive system to extract nutrients from food and water and stores solid waste until it passes out of the body).

It is possible that colorectal cancer cells also invade and destroy the tissue around them. They can detach from the tumor and spread to form new tumors in other parts of the body.

Apart from skin cancer, colorectal cancer is the third most common types of cancer in men (after prostate and lung) and women (after breast and lung). It is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States after lung cancer. Although the rate of new cases and deaths resulting from this disease is declining in this country each year for the past 5 years, more than 145 000 new cases were diagnosed and more than 49,000 people died from colorectal cancer.

Who is at risk for colorectal cancer?

We don’t know what causes colorectal cancer. Certain factors that are linked to an increased chance of developing colorectal cancer are as follows:

  • Age -It is more likely that colorectal cancer occurs as people get older. Although this disease can occur at any age, most people with colorectal cancer are older than 50 years.
  • Polyps -Polyps are growths that protrude from the inner wall of the colon or rectum. They are relatively common in people over 50 years of age. Most polyps are benign (noncancerous), but experts believe that most colorectal cancers occurring in certain polyps are called adenomas.Therefore, the detection and removal of these tumors may help prevent colorectal cancer. The procedure to remove polyps is called polypectomy.Some people may be genetically predisposed to have polyps. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a rare, inherited condition in which hundreds of polyps present in the colon and rectum. Since people with this condition are extremely likely to develop colorectal cancer, are often treated with surgery to remove the colon and rectum called a colectomy. The rectum sparing surgery may be an option. Also, the Food and Drug Administration (Food and Drug Administration, FDA) has approved an anti-inflammatory drug, celecoxib, for the treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis. Doctors may prescribe this drug in combination with monitoring and surgery to control this condition.
  • Personal History -The person who has already had colorectal cancer have an increased risk of colorectal cancer a second time. In addition, research studies show that some women with a history of ovarian cancer, uterine or breast cancer have a higher than average chance of developing colorectal cancer.
  • Family history -Close relatives (parents, siblings or children) of a person who has had colorectal cancer are more likely to have this type of cancer themselves, especially if the relative had cancer at a young age. If several family members have had colorectal cancer, the chances increase even more.
  • Ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease , ulcerative colitis is a condition that causes inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the colon. Crohn’s disease (also called Crohn’s colitis) causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly the small intestine (the part of the digestive tract that lies between the stomach and intestine). People with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease may be more likely to develop colorectal cancer than those without these conditions.
  • Diet -Some evidence suggests that the formation of colorectal cancer may be related to the consumption of a diet rich in red and processed meat and low in consumption of grains, fruits and vegetables. Researchers are exploring the role of these and other dietary components in the evolution of colorectal cancer.
  • Exercise -Some evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle may be associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. By contrast, people who exercise regularly may have a lower risk of colorectal cancer. 
  • Cigarette -Epidemiological studies show growing evidence suggesting that cigarette smoking, especially for a long time increases the risk of colorectal cancer.What are the screening tests and why are they important?

    The screening tests are tests to identify health problems before they cause symptoms. Screening for colorectal cancer can detect cancer, polyps, polypoid lesions, which have flat or slightly sunken abnormal cell growth, and other conditions. The polypoid lesions occur less frequently than polyps, but may also result in colorectal cancer.

    If the tests detect problems, diagnosis and treatment can be done promptly. Also, finding and removing polyps or abnormal cell growth in other area can be one of the most effective ways to prevent the formation of colorectal cancer. Also, colorectal cancer, in general, is more treatable when found early and before it has had a chance to spread.

    What methods are used as screening for colorectal cancer?

    Health care providers may suggest one or more of the following tests as screening for colorectal cancer:

    • The analysis of FOBT (fecal occult blood test, FOBT): This test detects blood in the stool (feces). Currently, there are  two types of FOBT. The first type, called stool guaiac test in which a chemical used to detect the presence of hemoglobin in stool. The heme portion of the protein part of the blood hemoglobin and contains iron. The other type of FOBT is called fecal immunochemical test, which uses antibodies to detect human hemoglobin protein in the fecesStudies have shown that this test may help reduce the number of deaths from colorectal cancer 15 to 33 percent when performed every year or every two years in people aged between 50 and 80 years.
    • Sigmoidoscopy : During this test, we examine the rectum and lower colon using a lighted instrument called a sigmoidoscope. Sigmoidoscopy can find precancerous or cancerous tumors in the rectum and lower colon which may be extracted or a biopsy can be performed. Studies suggest that carrying out regular examination in screening with sigmoidoscopy after he age of 50 can reduce the number of deaths from colorectal cancerThorough cleansing of the lower colon is necessary for this test.
    • Colonoscopy : During this test, the rectum and the entire colon is examined using a lighted instrument called a colonoscope. Colonoscopy can find precancerous or cancerous growths throughout the colon, even in the top of the colon, which could be missed by sigmoidoscopy. These tumors can be removed or biopsied. However, it is unclear whether colonoscopy can reduce the number of deaths from colorectal cancer. Thorough cleansing of the colon is necessary for this test and almost all patients receive some form of sedative.
    • Virtual colonoscopy (also called CT colonography): During this test, using a special x-ray equipment to produce pictures of the colon and rectum. A computer organizes these photos and create detailed images that can show polyps and other abnormalities. Since this test is less invasive than standard colonoscopy and does not require sedation, virtual colonoscopy may be more comfortable and faster. As with standard colonoscopy, you need a thorough cleansing of the colon before the test. Not yet known whether virtual colonoscopy can reduce the number of deaths from colorectal cancer.
    • Barium enema double contrast : This test consists of a series of radiographs of the entire colon and rectum. The films are taken after giving the person an enema with a barium solution and pumping air into the colon. The barium and air help to outline the colon and rectum on the x-rays. Research has shown that the barium enema double contrast may miss small polyps. It can only detect about 30 to 50 percent of cancers that can be found with a normal colonoscopy.
    • The digital rectal exam (digital rectal exam, DRE): In this test, the health care provider inserts a gloved and lubricated finger into the rectum to check for abnormal areas. The DRE can examine only the lower rectum. It is often included in routine physical examinations.

    Scientists continue to study the methods for screening for colorectal cancer, both individually and in combination, to determine their effectiveness. There are also ongoing studies to clarify the risks and prejudices of each test. See Question 5 where you see a table outlining some of the advantages and disadvantages, including potential harm of the screening of colorectal cancer.

    How can people and their health care providers decide which screening for colorectal cancer using and how often?

    Several large organizations such as the Brigade of the U.S. Preventive Services. States. (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force) (group of experts convened by the Public Health Service of the U.S.. States.), The American Cancer Society and professional associations, have established guidelines for screening for colorectal cancer. Although some details of their recommendations vary with regard to screening to be used and frequency of testing, all of these organizations support screening for colorectal cancer.

    It advises people to consult their health care provider about when will be start screening for colorectal cancer, what tests should be made, the benefits and risks of each test and the frequency with which appointments must be made .

    The decision to have a certain test will take into account several factors, including:

    • Sage, medical history, family history and general health;
    • Accuracy of the examinations;
    • Any damage of the review;
    • Preparation required for the review;
    • Required sedation during the examination;
    • Follow-up care after the test;
    • Convenience of the review;
    • Cost of the test and if covered by insurance.

    Do insurance companies pay for screening for colorectal cancer?

    Insurance coverage varies. It should be verified with the insurance company to determine benefits with respect to screening for colorectal cancer. Because virtual colonoscopy is a fairly new procedure, you may find refund policies are less clear than those of other tests. Medicare covers a number of screening for colorectal cancer to their heirs. Specific information about Medicare benefits is available on the Medicare website

    What happens if a selective review of colorectal cancer screening shows an abnormality ?

    If a screening finds any problems, the health care provider will perform a physical examination and medical history of the person and his family are checked. Further tests may also be ordered. These may include x-rays of the gastrointestinal tract, sigmoidoscopy or, more often, colonoscopyThe health care provider may also order a blood test called a CEA assay to measure carcinoembryonic antigen, a protein that is found sometimes in greater amounts in patients with colorectal cancer. If an abnormality is found during a sigmoidoscopy, a colonoscopy can be recommended. If an abnormality is found during a standard colonoscopy, a biopsy or polypectomy could be done to determine whether cancer is present. If an abnormality is found during a virtual colonoscopy, patients will be recommended to get a regular colonoscopy the same day.


Flu: Question and Answers

By on March 8, 2012 in Diseases, Health, Prevention with 0 Comments

What is flu?

Flu or influenza is a disease caused by virus that attacks the respiratory tract. Affected patients feel high fever, headache, sore throat, muscle aches, dry cough, conjunctival congestion and weakness. Pulmonary complications can also be there. Flu is often confused with the common cold, which has only local symptoms.

Outbreaks of this disease appear every year, especially in winter and spring.

How is the disease transmitted?

The flu virus is highly infectious and therefore highly transmissible, it spreads easily from person to person by respiratory secretions or droplets from coughs and sneezes, but may also be transmitted by hands.

What are the symptoms of flu?

The most characteristic symptoms of influenza are:

  • Malaise
  • Fever
  • Sleepiness
  • Cough and / or sneezing
  • Nasal packing
  • Joint pain

Most people also develop irritation (redness) throat and headache. It is also common to have a runny nose and sneezing. These symptoms, except cough, usually disappear within 4 to 7 days and sometimes there is a second wave of fever at the time. The cough and tiredness usually last for weeks after the rest of the illness is over.

Some people confuse colds with influenza because they share some of the same symptoms and are presented in the same season (season of colds and flu). However, the two diseases are very different. Most people have a cold several times a year and the flu only once every year for every few years.

What is the treatment?

For influenza requires symptomatic treatment for malaise, fever. The cough usually goes away by itself and so cough suppressants are not indicated.

For mild cases of the disease in people who are at high risk, you should take the following measures:

  • Stand.
  • Taking medications to relieve symptoms and help you rest.
  • Drink plenty of fluids.
  • Avoid aspirin (especially teens and children)
  • Avoid consumption of snuff and alcohol.
  • Avoid antibiotics unless necessary for another condition.

If influenza is detected within 48 hours after symptom onset, particularly in groups at high risk for complications, you can have some antiviral medications that can decrease the duration of these symptoms in about 1 day .

What are the complications?

Complications of influenza are very common particularly in patients with pre-existing diseases such as diabetes or lung disease, in these cases the most frequent complication is pneumonia.

Anyone at any age can have serious complications from the flu, but those most at risk include:

  • People over 50 years.
  • Children 6 to 23 months.
  • Women more than 3 months pregnant during flu season.
  • Anyone living in nursing homes or long term boarding.
  • Anyone with chronic heart, lung or kidney conditions, diabetes or have a weakened immune system.

How is it prevented?

The most effective way to protect against influenza is vaccination.

This vaccine should be applied preferably before winter, between January and May.

When should you get vaccinated?

Vaccination should be done every year since the virus strains change regularly. The ability of the virus to mutate requires the annual formulation of the vaccine. WHO is responsible for informing each year which are the infecting virus and the vaccines are prepared based on these particulars.

The flu vaccine has proved highly effective and well tolerated, the protection is for one year and applies from 6 months old.

13 Common Myths and Beliefs About Cancer

By on March 7, 2012 in Diseases, Health with 0 Comments

1.) “Is cancer contagious?”

Cancer is not contagious. No one can “catch or pass” cancer from another person.

2.) “They say that cancer occurs only in people with relatives who have or had cancer. Is cancer hereditary?” 

The cancer is not always hereditary. Most cancers occur in people who have relatives with cancer. However, some types of cancer do occur more often in certain families than in the rest of the population. For example, the following types of cancer sometimes occur in several members of a family:

  • Skin cancer (melanoma)
  • Breast cancer (breast)
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Colon cancer

3.) “If the cancer is removed by surgery or biopsy, is extended or water to other parts of the body?” 

Some people worry that surgery or biopsy to make cancer spread (shower or pass) the disease. This almost never happens. Surgeons use special methods and take many precautions to prevent cancer cells from spreading. For example, if they have to remove (removing) tissue from an area of ​​the body, they use different tools for each of the areas. So there is less chance that the cancer cells spread to healthy tissue.

Some people also worry that the cancer will spread through the air during surgery. This is not true. The air does not cause the cancer to spread or smear.

4.) “If a person is receiving cancer treatment, can he/she continue living at home, working, and participating in normal activities?” 

The cancer treatment affects people in different ways. How will you feel a particular person depends on their health status before treatment. Many cancer patients continue to work while receiving treatment. Their daily activities depend on the type of cancer they have, the stage of cancer, and type of treatment they receive.

5.) “Everyone with the same type of cancer have the same kind of treatment?”

The treatment your doctor recommends depends on the medical needs of each patient. For example:

  • The type of cancer the patient has
  • The area of ​​the body where cancer is located
  • How widespread (irrigated) the cancer is
  • The state of general health
  • Other factors

6.) “If I have cancer, I know because they feel pain. So I only get a cancer screening test if I feel any pain. right?”

You may feel or not feel pain if you have cancer. So even if you feel well, you should consult your doctor for a test to detect cancer. The cancer treatment works best when the disease is caught early.

7.) “I bumped into something and within a few days later I saw a bruise appeared. Are the bruises in the breasts produce breast cancer?”

Bumping or hurting the breast does not cause cancer. In general, doctors can not explain why some people get cancer and others do not. But clearly hurt the breasts does not increase the risk that a woman develops breast cancer (breast).

8.) “Can I have breast cancer if I do a lot of mammograms?”

Mammograms use X-ray quantities too small. Therefore, the risk of causing harm mammography is very low. In general, the benefits of regular mammograms outweigh the risks.

9.) “I take contraceptive pills. Does this mean I’m going to breast cancer?”

Recent studies show that young women who have taken birth control pills are at greater risk of developing breast cancer. The new birth control pills may present less risk than previous formulations.
10.) “The bra wires can cause breast cancer?”

Bra wires do not cause cancer. In general, doctors can not explain why some people develop cancer and others do not. But it is very clear that wearing bras or bras with rod does not increase the risk that a woman develops breast cancer.

11.) “I use deodorant and antiperspirant every day. Does this produce breast cancer?”

Currently no scientific research has shown that breast cancer is related to the use of deodorants or antiperspirants armpits.

12.) “Are there herbs that cure cancer?”

Some cancer patients take herbs (like cat’s claw, chaparral and Noni juice) with the hope that it will help cure cancer. But now scientific studies have not found any herb or herbal mixture to cure cancer.

Cancer patients who are taking or considering taking herbs should talk to their doctor. Some herbs may cause damage by themselves or when combined with common cancer treatments such as chemotherapy. In addition, some herbs can prevent other treatments or medications to work properly.

13. ) “Is a woman still a virgin after getting a Pap test?”

Many women who have not had sex want to know if they are still virgins after a Pap test. This test can be done without affecting virginity.



Bone Cancer

By on March 5, 2012 in Diseases, Prevention with 0 Comments

Important Key Points: 

  • Cancer that originates in the bone is rare.
  • Pain is the most common symptom of bone cancer.
  • Surgery is the usual treatment for bone cancer.
  • Modern surgical techniques have reduced the chances of amputation for 9 out of 10 patients diagnosed with bone cancer.
  • Because bone cancer can recur after treatment, it is important to make regular follow-ups.
  • It is recommended that people with bone cancer register to participate in clinical trials (research studies) that evaluate new treatments.


What is bone cancer?


Bone cancer is a malignant (cancerous) bone tumor that destroys the tissue of normal bone. Not all bone tumors are malignant. In fact, benign bone tumors (noncancerous) are more common than malignant tumors. Both tumors, benign as well as malignant, grow and compress the healthy bone tissue, but benign tumors do not spread, do not destroy the bone tissue and are rarely life threatening.

Malignant tumors that begin in bone tissue are called primary bone cancer. Cancer that has metasized (spread) to bones from other parts of the body, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer is called metastasis and is named for the organ or tissue in which it originated. Primary bone cancer is much less common than the cancer that spreads to the bones.


Are there different types of primary bone cancer?


Yes, cancer can originate in any bone. The bones are formed by three types of fabrics: osteoid (hard or compact), cartilage (hard and flexible) and fibrous (filamentary), as well as elements of bone marrow (soft tissue , spongy center of most bones).

Common types of primary bone cancer include:

Osteosarcoma , which originates from osteoid tissue in the bone. This tumor occurs most frequently in the knee and the humerus (upper arm).

Chondrosarcoma , which originates in the cartilage tissue. The cartilage cushions the ends of bones and joints coated. Chondrosarcoma occurs most frequently in the pelvis (located between the hip bones) in the upper leg and shoulder. Sometimes a chondrosarcoma contains cancerous bone cells. In that case, doctors classify the tumor and osteosarcoma.

The tumors of the Ewing sarcoma family (Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors, ESFT ), which usually originate in the bone but may also arise in soft tissue (muscles, adipose tissue (fat), fibrous tissue, blood vessels and other supporting tissues). Scientists believe that ESFT arise from immature nervous tissue elements in the bone or soft tissue. The ESFT occur more frequently along the spine and pelvis, and legs and arms.

Other cancers that originate in the soft tissue are called sarcomas of soft tissue. These are not bone cancer and therefore not described in this application.


What are the possible causes of bone cancer?


Although bone cancer does not have a clearly defined cause, researchers have identified several factors that increase the chance of developing these tumors. Osteosarcoma most often occurs in people who have received high doses of radiotherapy or treatment with certain anticancer drugs, children appear to be particularly prone to osteosarcoma. A small number of bone cancers are hereditary. For example, children who have had retinoblastoma hereditary (a rare cancer of the eyes) have a higher risk of osteosarcoma, particularly if treated with radiation . Also, people who have hereditary defects of bones and people with metal implants, which are sometimes used by doctors to repair fractures, are more prone to osteosarcoma. Ewing’s sarcoma is not closely related to any syndrome of hereditary cancer with congenital childhood diseases or with previous exposure to radiation.


How often  does bone cancer occur?


Primary bone cancer is rare. This is much less than one percent of all cancers. Each year, approximately 2,300 new cases of primary bone cancer are diagnozed in the United States. Certain populations are more likely to have different types of bone cancer:

Osteosarcoma occurs most often between 10 and 19 years of age. However, people over 40 years of age who have other conditions such as Paget’s disease (a condition characterized by benign abnormal formation of new bone cells), have an increased risk of breast cancer.

Chondrosarcoma occurs mainly in older adults (over 40 years of age). The risk increases as people age. This disease rarely occurs in children and adolescents.

The ESFT occur more frequently in children and adolescents under 19 years of age. The disease occurs more often in boys than girls. These tumors are extremely rare in black children.


What are the symptoms of bone cancer?



Pain is the most common symptom of bone cancer, but not all bone cancers cause pain. Persistent or unusual pain or swelling at or near the bone may be producidospor cancer or may be due to other problems. It is important to consult a doctor to determine the cause.


How is bone cancer diagnosed?


To make the diagnosis of bone cancer, the doctor asks about the personal medical history and patient’s family. The doctor also does a physical examination and may ask for lab tests and other diagnostic tests. Such evidence may include:

  • X-rays can show the location, size and shape of a bone tumor. If X-rays suggest that there is an abnormal area that may be cancerous, the doctor may recommend special imaging tests. Although X-rays suggest that an abnormal area is benign, it is possible that the doctor wants more testing, especially if the patient is experiencing persistent or unusual pain.
  • The bone scan is a test which is injected into a blood vessel in a small amount of radioactive , which travels through the bloodstream, the substance then accumulates in the bones and is detected by a scanner .
  • The computed tomography (CT), which consists of a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles, which are made ​​by a computer linked to an x-ray machine
  • Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, which uses a powerful magnet linked to a computer to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body without using x-rays
  • The positron emission tomography (PET ), in which a small amount of  radioactive glucose is injected into the vein and a scanner is used to create detailed computerized pictures of areas inside the body where it has used glucose. Because cancer cells often use more glucose than normal cells, images can be used to find cancer cells in the body.
  • The angiogram is X-ray blood vessels.
  • Biopsy (removing a tissue sample from the bone tumor) to determine whether cancer is present. The surgeon may perform a needle biopsy or incisional biopsy . In a needle biopsy, the surgeon makes a small hole in the bone and removes a sample of tumor tissue with an instrument like a needle. In an incisional biopsy, the surgeon cuts into the tumor and removes a tissue sample. Orthopedic oncologists (doctors experienced in treating bone cancer) are best trained to perform biopsies. A pathologist (a doctor who identifies diseases by studying cells and tissues to the microscope ) examines the tissue to determine if it is cancerous or not.
  • Analysis of blood to determine the concentration of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase. There is a lot of this enzyme in the blood when cells that form bone tissue are very active, either when children are growing, or when a broken bone is healing, or when disease or tumor caused by abnormal production of bone tissue. Since it is normal to find high levels of alkaline phosphatase in children and adolescents who are growing, this test is not a reliable indicator of bone cancer.


What are the treatment options for bone cancer?


Treatment options depend on the type, size, location and stage of cancer and the age and general health of the patient. Treatment options for bone cancer include surgery, chemotherapy , radiotherapy and cryosurgery.

  • Surgery is the usual treatment for bone cancer. The surgeon removes the entire tumor with negative margins (no cancer cells are found in the margins or edges of the tissue that is removed during surgery). The surgeon may also use special surgical techniques to minimize the amount of healthy tissues removed with the tumor.
  • Major advances in surgical techniques and pre-operative treatment of tumors have ensured that a majority of patients with bone cancer in an arm or a leg need not go through radical surgical procedures (such as total amputation of a limb). However, most patients who undergo conservative surgery of limb may need to undergo reconstructive surgery to maximize the function of the affected limb.
  • Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. Patients with bone cancer usually receive a combination of anticancer drugs. However, chemotherapy is not currently used to treat chondrosarcoma.
  • Radiation therapy uses high energy X-rays to kill cancer cells. This treatment may be used in combination with surgery. This is commonly used to treat chondrosarcoma, which can not be treated with chemotherapy and the ESFT. Can also be used for patients who do not want surgery.
  • Cryosurgery is the use of liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy cancer cells. This technique can be used sometimes instead of conventional surgery to destroy tumors.


Are follow-up treatments necessary?


Yes, sometimes bone cancer metastasizes, especially to the lungs or may recur (come back), either in place or in other bones of the body. People who have had bone cancer should see the doctor regularly and report immediately about any unusual symptoms. Monitoring varies across different types and stages of bone cancer. Generally, patients are checked frequently by their physicians and performed blood tests and X rays regularly. People who have had bone cancer, especially children and adolescents, are more prone to other cancers such as leukemia. Regular monitoring ensures early detection and treatment can start early.

Liver Cancer: Questions and Answers

By on March 3, 2012 in Diseases with 0 Comments

  1. Where is the liver and what is its function?The liver is a large organ located on the right side of the abdomen and is protected by the housing of the chest. The liver has many functions. It plays a role in converting food into energy. It also filters and stores blood.
  2. What is liver cancer?Liver cancer is a disease in which liver cells become abnormal, grow out of control and form a cancerous tumor. This type of cancer is called primary liver cancer. Primary liver cancer is also called malignant hepatoma or hepatocellular carcinoma. Very young children may develop another form of liver cancer known as hepatoblastoma.Cancer that spreads to the liver from another part of the body (metastatic cancer) is not the same as primary liver cancer. This fact sheet deals with primary liver cancer in adults. For information on hepatoblastoma or cancer that has spread to the liver from another area, contact the Information Service on Cancer (CIS) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the telephone number is listed below.
  3. What are the risk factors for liver cancer?The development of liver cancer is thought to be related to the infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Scientists believe that 10 to 20 percent of those infected with HBV will develop liver cancer. We find evidence of infection with hepatitis B virus in nearly a quarter of Americans with liver cancer. The exact relationship between HCV and liver cancer is being studied.Researchers have found that people with certain other liver diseases have a higher than average chance of developing primary liver cancer. For example, from 5 to 10 percent of people with liver cirrhosis (a progressive disorder that leads to scarring of the liver) eventually develop liver cancer. New research suggests that lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and malnutrition, can cause both cirrhosis and liver cancer.

    Aflatoxins, a group of chemicals produced by a fungus that can contaminate certain foods, like peanuts, corn, grain and seeds, are carcinogenic (cancer causing agents) of liver cancer.

  4. What are the symptoms of liver cancer?Primary liver cancer is difficult to detect at an early stage because early symptoms are usually vague. As with other cancers, this disease can cause a general feeling of poor health. Liver cancer can lead to loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, fatigue and weakness.As the cancer grows, pain may be present in the upper abdomen on the right side and may extend to the back and shoulder. Some people may feel a mass in the upper abdomen. Liver cancer can also lead to inflammation of the abdomen and a feeling of fullness or bloating. Some people have episodes of fever and nausea or develop jaundice, a condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes turn yellow and the urine becomes dark.

    It is important to note that these symptoms may be caused by primary or metastatic cancer in the liver, a benign (not cancer) in the liver or other less serious conditions. Only a doctor can tell for sure.

  5. How is the liver cancer diagnosed?To make a diagnosis of liver cancer, the doctor notes the medical history, a physical examination and order some careful analysis.
    • Blood tests are used to see how well the liver is functioning. They can also be used to check for tumor markers, which are substances often found in abnormal amounts in patients with liver cancer. The tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) may be useful to aid in the diagnosis of liver cancer. About 50 to 70 percent of people with primary liver cancer have elevated levels of AFP. However, other cancers such as germ cell cancer and in some cases, cancer of the stomach and pancreas also cause elevated levels of AFP.
    • Radiographs of the chest and abdomen, angiograms (x-rays of blood vessels), the CT scans (X-ray set in order by a computer) and magnetic resonance images (images created by using a magnetic field) can all become part of the diagnostic process.
    • Liver scans using radioactive materials can help identify abnormal areas in the liver.
    • The presence of liver cancer is confirmed with a biopsy. Liver tissue (biopsy sample) is removed (using a needle or during surgery)  and examined under a microscope to see if cancer cells are present. The doctor may also look at the liver with an instrument called a laparoscope, which is a small instrument in a tube with a light on one end. For this procedure, an incision in the abdomen is made to insert the laparoscope. The doctor may remove a small piece of tissue during laparoscopic surgery. A pathologist then examines the tissue under a microscope to see if cancer cells are present.
  6. What is the treatment for liver cancer?Liver cancer is difficult to control unless the cancer is found early. However, treatment can relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life of patients. Treatment depends on the stage (or extent) of disease, the condition of the liver and the age and general health of the patient. Your doctor may recommend surgery, chemotherapy (treatment with anticancer drugs), radiotherapy (treatment with high-energy rays), biological therapy (treatment that uses substances that help the body fight the cancer) or a combination of treatments.
  7. Are treatment studies (clinical studies) available for patients with liver cancer?Treatment studies (clinical studies) are research studies designed to find more effective treatments and better ways to use current treatments. Participation in treatment studies is an option for many patients with liver cancer. In some studies, all patients receive the new treatment. In others, doctors compare different therapies by giving the new treatment to a group of patients and standard therapy to another group. In this way, doctors can compare different therapies.In studies of treatment for liver cancer, doctors study new anticancer drugs and drug combinations. They are also studying new ways of giving chemotherapy, such as placing the drugs directly into the liver. Other research approaches include cryotherapy (surgery that uses extreme cold to destroy cancer cells) and various combinations of standard treatments.

Ovarian Cancer: Questions and Answers

By on March 3, 2012 in Diseases, Prevention with 0 Comments
  1. What is ovarian cancer?Ovarian cancer is cancer that originates in the ovaries, the pair of female reproductive organs located in the pelvis. The ovaries have two functions: to produce eggs and female hormones (chemicals that control the way certain cells or organs function). Ovarian cancer occurs when cells in the ovary become abnormal and divide without control or order. Cancer cells can invade and destroy surrounding tissue. Can also be separated from the tumor and spread to form new tumors in other parts of the body.
  2. Who is at risk?It is estimated that in the United States, more than 25,000 women were diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 1999 and over 14,000 died from the disease. The exact causes of ovarian cancer are unknown. However, studies show that the following factors may increase the likelihood of developing this cancer:
    • Family history. The first-degree relatives (mother, daughter, sister) of a woman who has had ovarian cancer are at increased risk of developing this cancer. The risk is especially high if two or more first degree relatives of a woman have had the disease. A family history of breast cancer or colon cancer is also associated with increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
    • Age. The probability of developing ovarian cancer increases as women age. Most ovarian cancers occur in women over 50 years of age with increased risk for women over 60 years of age.
    • Motherhood. Women who have never had children are more likely to develop ovarian cancer than women who have  had children. In fact, the more children she has had, the less the chance of developing ovarian cancer.
    • Personal history. Women who have had breast cancer or colon cancer, are more likely to develop ovarian cancer than women who have not had these diseases.
    • Fertility drugs. Fertility treatment with certain drugs that trigger ovulation is associated with a probability greater than average of developing ovarian cancer.
    • Talc. Some studies suggest that women who have used talc in the genital area for many years may have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer. However, more research is needed to understand this possible risk factor.
  3. Is there a test to detect early ovarian cancer?The sooner it is detected, the better the chance for recovery. However, ovarian cancer is difficult to detect early. Many times, women with ovarian cancer have no symptoms or have very mild symptoms until the disease reaches an advance stage. Scientists are studying ways to detect ovarian cancer before symptoms develop.The study of early detection of cancer of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian, or PLCO trial, seeks to determine whether certain evidence will reduce the number of deaths from such cancers. The PLCO trial is currently evaluating the utility of certain methods to detect ovarian cancer. One method is the blood test that measures the level CA-125, a substance called tumor marker, found in the blood often in quantities greater than normal in women with ovarian cancer. This study is also evaluating the effectiveness of a physical examination of the ovaries and a test called a transvaginal ultrasound to detect early disease. Transvaginal ultrasound, also known as DVT, is a procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and bladder. An instrument is inserted into the vagina, the sound waves vibrate the organs inside the pelvic area. These sound waves produce echoes, which uses the computer to create a picture called a sonogram.
  4. Does it cause any symptoms ovarian cancer?Ovarian cancer usually shows no obvious signs or symptoms until it is late in its development. Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:
    • General abdominal discomfort or pain (gas, indigestion, pressure, swelling, bloating, cramps).
    • Nausea, diarrhea, constipation or frequent urination.
    • Loss of appetite.
    • Feeling of fullness even after a light meal.
    • Gain or weight loss without just cause.
    • Abnormal vaginal bleeding.

    These symptoms may be caused by ovarian cancer or other less serious disorders. It is important to consult your doctor about any of these symptoms.

  5. How is the ovarian cancer diagnosed?To find the cause of symptoms, the doctor evaluates the woman’s medical history, perform a physical examination and orders diagnostic tests. Some of the examinations and tests that may be useful are described below:
    • Pelvic exam. This includes feeling the uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder and rectum to find any abnormality in their shape or size. It is usually done along with examination of Pap test (common test used to detect cervical cancer). Sometimes this test can detect ovarian cancer, but is not a reliable way to detect or diagnose ovarian cancer.
    • Ultrasound. Use high-frequency sound waves. These waves can not be heard by humans, they point to the ovaries. The pattern of the echoes they produce creates a picture called a sonogram.Healthy tissues, fluid-filled cysts and tumors look different on the table.
    • Analysis of CA-125. consists of a blood test to measure levels of CA-125, a tumor marker in the blood is usually in quantities greater than normal in women with ovarian cancer.
    • Radiography of the lower abdomen or barium enema. consists of a series of x-rays of the colon and rectum. The photographs were taken after the patient is given an enema with a white, chalky solution containing barium. The barium outlines the colon and rectum on the x-ray, making it easier to see the tumor or other abnormal areas.
    • Computed tomography (CT scan). consists of a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine.
    • Biopsy. involves taking a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope. A pathologist views the tissue for diagnosis. To obtain the tissue, the surgeon performs a laparotomy (opening the abdomen). If cancer is suspected, the surgeon performs an oophorectomy (removal of the entire ovary). This is important because if cancer is present, cutting the outer layer of the ovary to simply remove a tissue sample, may cancer cells to escape and spread the disease.

    If the diagnosis is ovarian cancer, the doctor will want to learn the stage (or extent) of disease in order to find out whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to what parts of the body. The staging of the disease may involve surgery, x-rays and other procedures making detailed images, and laboratory tests. Knowing the stage of the disease helps the doctor plan treatment.

  6. How is ovarian cancer treated?Doctors use sing different combinations of treatments and therapies to treat ovarian cancer. The treatment plan for a particular patient depends on several factors, including cancer stage, age and general health.
    • Surgery is the treatment for most women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. In general, ovaries, cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes are removed in an operation called a hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (surgical removal of both fallopian tubes and ovaries).During surgery, determines the stage of the disease and usually involves the removal of lymph nodes (small organs located along the ducts of the lymphatic system) tissue samples from the diaphragm, the omentum (thin tissue covering the stomach and intestine) and other organs in the abdomen, and fluid in the abdomen. If the cancer has spread, the surgeon usually removes as much cancer as possible to reduce the amount of cancer that must then be treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
    • Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. Most drugs used to treat ovarian cancer are given by injection into a vein (intravenously or IV). There may also be chemotherapy drugs directly into the abdomen (intraperitoneal or IP) via a catheter, a thin tube that is placed on the duration of treatment.After chemotherapy is completed, you can perform a second look surgery to examine the abdomen directly. The surgeon may remove fluid and a tissue sample to see if the anti-cancer drugs have successfully removed the cancer.
    • Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, involves the use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy affects the cancer cells only in the treated area. Radiation may come from a machine (external radiation) or from a radioactive liquid placed directly into the abdomen through a catheter (intraperitoneal radiation).

All about thyroid and how to prevent thyroid disease

By on February 6, 2012 in Diseases, Prevention with 0 Comments

Thyroid troubles are on the increase of late, and medical science has been putting forward many a solution to quell such ailments. In case you didn’t know, the  thyroid is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland, situated in the anterior neck, above the sternal manubriului and  between the two muscles sternocleidomastoidieni. The gland gets its name from the Greek word for shield (Thyreo) after it was found out in the 18th century that thyroid was associated with the neck shield. But we now know that thyroid functions as a shield for the entire body.

Thyroid hormones are required for all processes that take place in the body. Based on growth, thyroid hormones are responsible for the appearance of ossification nuclei that take care of  body’s thermoregulation. They play a major role in metabolism.

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