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Cigarette smoking causes half the cases of bladder cancer in women

By on March 12, 2012 in Diseases with 0 Comments

Cigarette smokers have an increased risk of bladder cancer than previously reported. According to a study conducted by scientists at the National Institute Cancer (NCI), which is part of the National Institutes of Health, women who smoke face similar risk as smoking men to develop cancer. The report was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association ‘s August 16, 2011, issue.

The latest study uses data from more than 450 000 participants in the Diet and Health Study from the National Institutes of Health and the Association of Retired Persons U.S.. States. They study was conducted between 1995 and  2006.

Although previous studies showed that only 20 to 30% of cancer cases in women were caused by smoking, these new data indicate that smoking is responsible for about half of cases of bladder cancer in women, similar to the proportion men was found in current and previous studies. This increase in the proportion of bladder cancer cases in women attributable to cigarette smoking may be the result of an increasing number of women who smoke, so that men and women are almost as likely to smoke, as noted in the current studyMost previous studies were carried out over periods of time or geographic regions where smoking was much less common among women. 

The researchers found that the amount of risk caused by smoking, called excess risk, was higher in this study than in studies that reported previously. “Current smokers in our study had a risk four times excess of bladder cancer, compared with over three times the risk in previous studies. The strongest association between smoking and bladder cancer is probably due to changes in the composition of cigarettes or smoking habits over the years,” said study author Dr. Neal Freedman, of the Division of Epidemiology and Genetics NCI Cancer  Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, DCEG ). “Incidence rates of bladder cancer in the U.S.. States. have remained relatively stable over the past 30 years, although smoking rates have declined overall. The greatest risk, compared with studies that were released in mid to late nineties, may explain why the rates of bladder cancer have not decreased. “

Although there have been reductions in the concentrations of tar and nicotine in cigarette smoke, has been apparent increases in the concentrations of carcinogenic factors associated with bladder cancer. A study by the NCI DCEG 2009 was the first to suggest a higher risk of bladder cancer induced by smoking than previously reported. The report, based on data from the Study of Bladder Cancer in New England, found that the association between cigarette smoking and bladder cancer risk was apparently stronger than the mid-nineties. The survey results again confirmed the 2009 report.

In the current study, former smokers were twice as likely to develop bladder cancer than people who never smoked, and current smokers were four times more likely than never smokers. As with many other cancers related to smoking, quitting smoking was associated with a lower risk of bladder cancer. Participants who had not smoked for 10 years at least had a lower incidence of bladder cancer compared with those who quit smoking for shorter time periods or with those who still smoked.

“Our findings provide further evidence of the importance of preventing it from starting to smoke and promote cessation of the habit for both men and women,” said lead author Dr. Christian Abnet also of DCEG. “Although the prevalence of cigarette smoking has declined about 20% of the U.S. adult population. States. continue to smoke. “

Although smoking causes the same risk for men and for women, men are still four times more likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer. These results and the results of earlier studies suggest that differences in smoking rates explain only part of the higher incidence rates among American men. The researchers suggest that occupational exposure and physiological differences, may contribute to gender inequality.

In 2011, approximately 69,250 people will be diagnosed with bladder cancer in the U.S.. States., And 14,990 die from the disease.

 

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